The Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire: Measuring Different Forms and Contexts of Bullying and Harassment among Students
What is the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and How to Use It?
Bullying is a serious problem that affects millions of children and adolescents around the world. It can have negative consequences for the mental health, academic performance, and social relationships of both the victims and the perpetrators. Therefore, it is important to measure and prevent bullying in schools and other settings.
olweus bully victim questionnaire pdf
One of the most widely used tools for assessing bullying is the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ). This is a self-report measure that was developed by Dan Olweus, a pioneer in bullying research. The OBVQ consists of 40 questions that cover different aspects of bullying, such as:
The frequency and types of bullying experienced or perpetrated by the respondents
The locations and situations where bullying occurs
The attitudes and reactions of the respondents and others towards bullying
The demographic characteristics of the respondents and their peers
The OBVQ can be used to classify respondents into four groups: non-bully-nonvictim, victim, bully, and bully-victim. These groups can help identify the risk factors and protective factors for bullying involvement, as well as the outcomes and interventions for each group.
How to Use the OBVQ?
The OBVQ can be administered to students in grades 3 to 12, either individually or in groups. The questionnaire can be completed anonymously or with identifiers, depending on the purpose and ethical considerations of the study. The questionnaire can be administered online or on paper, and it takes about 15 to 20 minutes to complete.
The OBVQ can be used for different purposes, such as:
Screening for bullying involvement among students
Evaluating the prevalence and characteristics of bullying in a school or a community
Monitoring the changes and trends of bullying over time
Comparing the levels and forms of bullying across different groups, regions, or countries
Testing the effects and effectiveness of bullying prevention programs
The OBVQ has been validated in many studies and has shown good reliability and validity across different cultures and contexts. The OBVQ can provide valuable information for researchers, educators, parents, and policymakers who are interested in understanding and addressing bullying.
The Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire is a comprehensive and widely used measure of bullying that can help assess the nature and extent of bullying among children and adolescents. The OBVQ can be used for various purposes, such as screening, evaluation, monitoring, comparison, and testing. The OBVQ can provide useful insights for developing and implementing effective strategies to prevent and reduce bullying.
Why is the OBVQ Important for Bullying Research and Prevention?
The OBVQ is a valuable tool for bullying research and prevention for several reasons. First, it provides a comprehensive and multidimensional assessment of bullying that covers different forms, contexts, and consequences of bullying. It can capture the complexity and diversity of bullying experiences among students, as well as the factors that influence them. Second, it has been tested and validated in many studies and has shown good psychometric properties, such as reliability, validity, and sensitivity. It can produce reliable and valid data that can be used for statistical analysis and comparison. Third, it has been widely used and adapted in different countries and cultures, demonstrating its cross-cultural applicability and utility. It can help understand the similarities and differences of bullying across different settings and populations. Fourth, it has been used to evaluate the effects and effectiveness of various bullying prevention programs, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP). It can help measure the impact and outcomes of interventions on bullying behavior and attitudes.
How to Interpret the Results of the OBVQ?
The results of the OBVQ can be interpreted in different ways, depending on the purpose and design of the study. One common way is to use the responses to the perpetrator and victim items to classify respondents into four groups: non-bully-nonvictim, victim, bully, and bully-victim. These groups can provide a general overview of the prevalence and distribution of bullying involvement among students. Another way is to use the responses to the specific items or subscales to examine the frequency and types of bullying experienced or perpetrated by respondents. These items or subscales can provide more detailed information about the nature and characteristics of bullying among students. A third way is to use the responses to the attitude and reaction items to assess the perceptions and opinions of respondents about bullying. These items can provide insight into the social norms and expectations that influence bullying behavior and intervention.
The results of the OBVQ can also be analyzed in relation to other variables, such as demographic characteristics, academic performance, mental health, social relationships, or intervention exposure. These variables can help identify the risk factors and protective factors for bullying involvement, as well as the outcomes and implications of bullying for students.
What are the Benefits and Challenges of Using the OBVQ?
The OBVQ has many benefits for bullying research and prevention, such as:
It is based on a clear and comprehensive definition of bullying that covers different forms and contexts of bullying
It is easy to administer and score, and it can be adapted to different languages and cultures
It has good psychometric properties, such as reliability, validity, and sensitivity
It can provide rich and detailed data on bullying involvement and its correlates
It can help evaluate the effects and effectiveness of bullying prevention programs
However, the OBVQ also has some challenges and limitations, such as:
It relies on self-report data, which may be influenced by social desirability, memory bias, or misunderstanding of the questions
It may not capture all the forms and nuances of bullying, especially those that are subtle, indirect, or online
It may not reflect the subjective experiences and feelings of the respondents, such as their emotions, coping strategies, or resilience
It may not account for the contextual factors that affect bullying, such as the school climate, the peer culture, or the family environment
It may not be suitable for younger children or children with special needs, who may have difficulties in understanding or completing the questionnaire
How to Complement the OBVQ with Other Methods?
To overcome some of the challenges and limitations of the OBVQ, it is recommended to complement it with other methods of data collection and analysis. For example:
To reduce the social desirability bias, the OBVQ can be administered anonymously or with identifiers that are not linked to the respondents' names or identities
To capture more forms and nuances of bullying, the OBVQ can be supplemented with open-ended questions or qualitative interviews that allow the respondents to express their views and experiences in their own words
To reflect more subjective experiences and feelings of bullying, the OBVQ can be combined with psychological measures that assess the emotional, cognitive, behavioral, or physiological responses to bullying
To account for more contextual factors of bullying, the OBVQ can be integrated with ecological measures that examine the characteristics and influences of the school, the peer group, the family, or the community on bullying
To make the OBVQ more suitable for younger children or children with special needs, the OBVQ can be modified or simplified to match their developmental level and abilities
By using a multimethod approach, the OBVQ can provide a more comprehensive and accurate picture of bullying among children and adolescents.
Where to Find and Download the OBVQ?
The OBVQ is available in different languages and versions, depending on the needs and preferences of the users. The original version of the OBVQ was developed by Dan Olweus in 1983 and was later revised and updated in 1996. The revised version of the OBVQ includes 40 items that cover seven specific forms of bullying, as well as cyberbullying and sexual harassment. The revised version of the OBVQ can be found and downloaded from the PsycTESTS database, which is a repository of psychological tests and measures maintained by the American Psychological Association (APA). The PsycTESTS database provides information about the test authors, publishers, reliability, validity, scoring, and administration of the OBVQ, as well as a link to download the questionnaire in PDF format.
The OBVQ has also been translated and adapted into different languages and cultures, such as Spanish, Italian, Turkish, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, and Arabic. Some of these translations and adaptations have been published in academic journals or books, while others have been developed by researchers or practitioners for their own studies or projects. The users who are interested in using the OBVQ in a language other than English can search for the available translations and adaptations in the literature or contact the authors or developers of the translations and adaptations directly.
How to Cite the OBVQ?
The users who use the OBVQ for their research or practice should cite the source of the questionnaire properly. The citation format may vary depending on the style guide or journal requirements, but generally it should include the following information:
The name of the test author (Dan Olweus)
The year of publication of the test (2006)
The title of the test (Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire)
The name of the database where the test can be found (PsycTESTS)
The DOI or URL of the test
For example, using the APA style (7th edition), the citation of the OBVQ would look like this:
Olweus, D. (2006). Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ) [Database record]. PsycTESTS. https://doi.org/10.1037/t09634-000
If a translation or adaptation of the OBVQ is used, then the citation should also include the name of the translator or adapter, the year of publication of the translation or adaptation, and the source where it can be found.
The OBVQ is a useful and reliable tool for measuring bullying among children and adolescents. It can provide comprehensive and detailed data on the prevalence, characteristics, and consequences of bullying, as well as the factors that influence it. It can also help evaluate the effects and effectiveness of bullying prevention programs. The OBVQ has been widely used and adapted in different countries and cultures, demonstrating its cross-cultural applicability and utility. However, the OBVQ also has some challenges and limitations, such as relying on self-report data, not capturing all the forms and nuances of bullying, not reflecting the subjective experiences and feelings of bullying, not accounting for the contextual factors of bullying, and not being suitable for younger children or children with special needs. Therefore, it is recommended to complement the OBVQ with other methods of data collection and analysis, such as observations, interviews, psychological measures, ecological measures, or modified versions. By using a multimethod approach, the OBVQ can provide a more comprehensive and accurate picture of bullying among children and adolescents. ca3e7ad8fd